Abstract - The economic conditioning of silver coin emission on the example of the grosz
The monetary policy of European countries in medieval and modern times depended greatly on silver and gold resources and supplies of individual countries, the scale of international trade turnovers, the inflation rate, which was allowed to increase in critical economic conditions (e.g. during the war) and other factors. The monetary laws were a very important privilege which was reluctantly given and very often abused. The production of undervalued money enriched its ‘producer’ but it also complicated the situation on the market. That is why in order to improve the economic situation such great number of monetary reforms were undertaken throughout the history. Introducing silver grosz coins into European circulation was one of those reforms. The grosz in turn, as it underwent economic fluctuations, has become a small change coin. The devaluation of coins, especially silver coins (according to the rule of squeezing more valuable money out of the circulation by less valuable money), was accompanied by the devaluation of accounting units, what has been proved on the example of the grosz.
Apart from the economic and political conditions of silver coin emission also cultural factors, such as historically established national traditions, a vast cultural system within which a given country existed as well as ethical aspect, are important. Historical perspective (since 13th century) allows to notice the whole set of multilevel dependencies and connectios generating various processes and socio-cultural facts.