Abstract - Situational efficiency of arm and leg techniques in a karate fight of top-level female karate competitors
Introduction: Structural characteristics of a sport fight represent a fundamental amount of information for a successful modelling of technical-tactical trainings and development of karate. Karate fight consists of a number of performed techniques and impression today is that the arm techniques are dominant and more important than the leg techniques. The aim of research is to analyse the ratio of scored and non-scored techniques in order to determine the difference in situational efficiency in a fight between arm and leg techniques of top-level female karate competitors.
Methods: The sample of participants consisted of a group of ten top-level senior female karate competitors, participants of one elite world tournament in a kumite competitor’s discipline – open category.
The analysed variables for the evaluation were divided in three groups: non-scored techniques, scored techniques and variables of situational efficiency.
The fights were recorded with a DVD camera. Data were processed by the programme Statistics for Windows 7.0. using the descriptive parameters, K-S test and Student t-test.
Results and discussion: According to the results of the research, arm techniques: GT-gyaku tsuki and KT-kizame tsuki show the highest frequency of non-scored techniques. Leg techniques MG-mawashi geri and UMG-ura mawashi geri show lower values of frequency in a karate fight. The highest values of the scores achieved by techniques are ranked: GT-B-gyaku tsuki scored, KT-Bkizame tsuki scored, NT-B-nage waza tsuki scored and leg techniques MG-B-mawashi geri scored and UMG-B-ura mawashi geri scored. This approach to fight analysis indicates that it is tactically justified to use arm techniques more frequently in a karate fight, but the analysis of the difference between the efficiency of arm and leg techniques shows something else. On the basis of the obtained results one can notice that there is no statistically significant difference in partial or total situational efficiency between arm and leg techniques in a karate fight in the group of top-level female karate competitors. In other words, with smaller frequency of leg techniques one can have almost the same efficiency in a karate fight (because the scores obtained by leg techniques are higher). This information points to tactical justification of increased application of leg techniques in relation to arm techniques in a karate fight.
Conclusion: One can conclude that the usage of leg techniques as the more efficient ones must be intensified and this could increase the level of attractiveness of karate as a sport. The mentioned indicators of presented characteristics of karate fights at top-level female karate competitors should be followed by further research which should include a bigger sample of participants. Only with such an expert and scientific approach is it possible to ensure further progress of karate, which, according to the results of this research, shows potential to grow.