Abstract - The karate culture and aggressiveness in kumite competitors
Aim and Objectives: The aim is to test three hypotheses. The first one reads: practising different styles of karate, with different rules of kumite, differentiates competing athletes in terms of aggressiveness. The second hypothesis postulates that: the culture of karate or other sport has an impact on the level of aggressiveness of kumite practitioners. The last hypothesis is that: the more brutal a combat system, the greater is the aggressiveness of the kumite system competitors.
Material and Methods: The study used the Aggression Questionnaire (BD-100) and the Social Approval Questionnaire (SAQ). For analysis of the research were used variance analysis, one group T significance test and post-hoc tests. Four styles of karate representing different systems of kumite sports competition were specifically selected for the study including: shotokan (semi-contact), kyokushin (knockdown), Oyama (full contact), shidokan (mixed fighting). In addition, the results obtained were compared with the results of orienteers representing a non-contact sport) and with the average results of physical education students at Wroclaw Academy of Physical Education.
Results: Karate practitioners fighting in the semi-contact (shotokan karate) system have a substantially lower overall level of aggressiveness, both physical and verbal, and suspiciousness than other competitors in kumite systems. Karatekas competing in mixed fighting (shidokan karate) are characterized by significantly higher levels of physical aggressiveness and irritability than karatekas fighting in less violent forms of kumite. Karate practitioners representing knockdown (kyokushin karate) tend to have a significantly higher overall level of aggressiveness, both physical and verbal, and suspiciousness than representatives of the semi-contact (shotokan karate) system. The results for mixed fighting (shidokan karate) practitioners show they are significantly less physically aggressive and irritable than full contact (Oyama karate) fighters and relatively more negative and resentful than those competing in knockdown (kyokushin karate). All the results of the karatekas, the orienteers and the students on the BD-100 scale measured in tetrons are average indicators of aggressiveness.
1. Practising different styles of karate, with different rules of kumite, does not differentiate competing athletes in terms of aggressiveness.
2. It is sport itself has an impact on karatekas (kumite competitors) aggressiveness levels.
3. Regardless of the brutality of sportsmanship systems kumite level of aggressiveness all karate is inadequate.